Facebook and Instagram are to stop allowing advertisers to target users based on their history of posting, reading or liking content related to subjects such as sexual orientation, religion and political beliefs.

The social media networks’ parent company, Meta Platforms, said from January it would remove detailed targeting options that let advertisers seek out users based on their interactions with causes, organisations or public figures related to health, race or ethnicity, political affiliation, religion, or sexual orientation.

This means, for example, that advertisers can no longer pay to target people who have shown an interest in same-sex marriage or Catholicism.

In a blogpost, Graham Mudd, a Meta Platforms vice- president of product marketing, said: “We want to better match people’s evolving expectations of how advertisers may reach them on our platform and address feedback from civil rights experts, policymakers and other stakeholders on the importance of preventing advertisers from abusing the targeting options we make available.”

According to research by the Tech Transparency Project, Facebook had been serving ads for weapons accessories and body armour next to inflammatory discussions in militia and “patriot” groups on the platform, even after the 6 January Capitol attack in Washington.

Meta generates 98% of its income from advertisers, who are able to target specific demographics and consumers because the company has built up profiles of its users through their online activity. Meta, which also sells adverts on its Messenger app and to third-party apps through its audience network, made $86bn (£64bn) in revenues last year. Nearly 2 billion people use the Facebook app every day.

Meta acknowledged that the move could affect political groups and campaigning organisations, many of which use Facebook for fundraising.

“Some of our advertising partners have expressed concerns about these targeting options going away because of their ability to help generate positive societal change, while others understand the decision to remove them,” said Mudd, who added that advocacy groups still had options on the platform for reaching people.

However, advertisers on Meta platforms can continue to target billions of users based on a range of options such as age, gender, occupation and location. Meta is under scrutiny on both sides of the Atlantic over its record on keeping users safe following revelations by the whistleblower Frances Haugen, who has released tens of thousands of internal company documents.

In a quarterly report released on Tuesday, Meta said the prevalence of hate speech on Facebook had fallen for the fourth quarter in a row. In the third quarter of 2021, it was 0.03% or 3 views of hate speech per 10,000 views of content, down from 0.05% in the second quarter.

A £3bn legal action against Google over claims it secretly tracked the internet activity of millions of iPhone users has been blocked by the UK supreme court.

Legal experts said the decision meant the “floodgates” remained closed to class actions on data privacy in England and Wales, although the ruling noted digital technology’s ability to cause “mass harm” to people.

Richard Lloyd, a former director of the consumer group Which?, wanted to bring a US-style class action lawsuit against the search engine on behalf of about 4.4 million people in England and Wales.

He claimed Google illegally misused the data of millions of iPhone users by tracking and collating their internet usage on their handsets’ Safari browser in 2011 and 2012, even when users were assured they would be opted out of such tracking by default.

Lloyd and the campaign group Google You Owe Us hoped to sue the US-based company for damages equivalent to £750 per person for alleged breaches of the Data Protection Act (DPA).

The high court initially ruled that Lloyd could not serve the claim on Google outside the jurisdiction of England and Wales in October 2018 – because Lloyd needed permission to serve it in the US state of Delaware where Google is incorporated – but that decision was overturned by the court of appeal in October 2019. However, on Wednesday a panel of five supreme court justices allowed an appeal by Google against that decision.

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Giving the lead ruling, Lord Leggatt said Lloyd’s intention that affected iPhone users could be awarded a uniform sum, without having to prove financial loss or mental distress, was “unsustainable”.

Leggatt said the section of the DPA on which the claim was based referred to material damage and mental distress caused by unlawful processing of data – and not the unlawful processing itself. A catch-all lawsuit that did not detail each individual’s suffering of material damage or mental distress was therefore unsustainable.

The judge said: “What gives the appearance of substance to the claim is the allegation that Google secretly tracked the internet activity of millions of Apple iPhone users for several months and used the data obtained for commercial purposes. But on analysis the claimant is seeking to recover damages without attempting to prove that this allegation is true in the case of any individual for whom damages are claimed.

“Without proof of some unlawful processing of an individual’s personal data beyond the bare minimum required to bring them within the definition of the represented class, a claim on behalf of that individual has no prospect of meeting the threshold for an award of damages.

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